Journal of Academic Perspectives
Journal of Academic Perspectives

 Volume 2024 No. 3

Establishing Psychological Safety within the Hidden Curriculum in Medical Education

Tiffany Clementson Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pharmacology, St. George's University



Psychological Safety within the hidden curriculum in medical education is an important and essential piece of the learning environment puzzle. The purpose of this paper if to outline the process of establishing this psychological safety among students as they encounter teachings of the hidden curriculum. Students rely on the skills that they gain through the hidden curriculum and educators have the means to create a space that is safe for students to share their opinions and give contributions without the fear of embarrassment or ridicule. Educators can establish and reinforce this psychological safety by establishing ground rules to the team and building the foundation of good team dynamics, inviting participation from students and being able to provide productive feedback to their students. The implementation and enforcement of policies and policy enforcing committees can be established to ensure that educators are accountable for any barriers that may disrupt that psychological safety.

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Perspectives on Advancing Gender and Environmental Justice: Implications and Applications of a Conceptual Model for Supporting Women's Environmental Leadership

Emily Olga Rosa Dobrich, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto


Critical concerns about climate change with rising global temperatures and environmental disasters support the urgent need for environmental leadership strategies and action. Women’s environmental leadership is essential for local, national, and international initiatives to mitigate and adapt to the socio-economic as well as human well-being threats precipitated by climate change. Despite evidence and international support and encouragement from organizations such as the United Nations, women's perspectives, particularly those from Indigenous women and Indigenous knowledges, are consistently ignored, under-estimated and under-represented at all levels. This paper makes two significant contributions to support the ongoing struggle to advance women’s environmental leadership. First, the aim of this research was to evaluate barriers to women’s environmental leadership and source evidence-based principles to create opportunities for diversified input. Second, based on the findings and using the theoretical assumptions of transnational feminist theories and situated solidarity building, a conceptual model that combines three types of leadership was created to advance women’s environmental leadership potential. These three types of leadership are: collective leadership, relational leadership, and transformative leadership. The key principles and examples of each of the three types of leadership are presented before the implications and prospective applications of the model are discussed. This article concludes with a hopeful perspective on the future of women’s environmental leadership. Perspectives on advancing women’s environmental leadership potential are significant for both gender equality and environmental action. This research contributes to innovative approaches for social and environmental justice, which deserve more attention than they are presently receiving. Researchers from various academic fields, particularly those interested in adult education, feminist studies, leadership, environmental and sustainability studies, will find the perspectives advanced by this article useful


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God, the Devil, and the Bible: The Judeo–Christian Evolution of Evil

Aaron Gale, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, West Virginia University


This paper will explore the evolution of evil and the devil from a Judeo-Christian perspective. Methodologies utilized in this study will include biblical-critical methods of inquiry such as literary and textual forms of criticism. Specifically, this study will focus on the literary and textual analyses of biblical era works including the Old and New Testament, the pseudepigrapha, as well as the later corpus of rabbinic texts such as the Talmud. Ultimately, the aim of this article is twofold. First, it is my goal  to provide insight into the true origins and early evolution of Jewish beliefs concerning evil and the devil, many of which were never adoptive within mainstream Judaism itself. Second, I aim to show that subsequent early Christian understandings of evil and the devil evolved not from primary Jewish sources such as the Hebrew scriptures, but rather from extra-canonical, pseudepigraphal texts such as 1 Enoch, the book of Jubilees, and the Wisdom of Solomon. 

The study will first present some various early Jewish views of God and evil as found in the Hebrew Scriptures, or Old Testament, including the idea that God initially served as a coincidence of opposites, responsible for both good and evil events (e.g., Joshua 6; 8). Ultimately, Jewish thought stopped short of ascribing blame to a devil or other sinister entity, instead focusing on concepts such as personal righteousness (e.g., Isaiah 10.20). However, rabbinic texts such as the Talmud do discuss topics including the devil and the demonic (i.e., b. Berarchot 6; b. Megillah 3a; b. Gittin 68a), although this line of thinking remained largely outside the realm of normative Jewish thought. This second focus of this study will be on Intertestamental texts and the New Testament, or Christian scriptures. By the late first century CE, when the Christian scriptures were recorded, the devil was now believed to be largely in control of the material world (e.g., Matt 4.8-9), thus vindicating God altogether from the performance of evil. Early Christian authors such as Paul and the Gospel authors therefore formulated an advanced understanding of evil, the devil, and even demonic entities (e.g., Mark 3.22) that surpassed those found in the earlier Hebrew scriptures.

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Conceptualizing the Nexus between Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaption and Mitigation in Governance

Malayna Raftopoulos, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Society, Aalborg University; Sandra Cassotta, Associatae Professor, Department of Law, Aalborg University; Eleftherios Papachristos, Associate Professor, Department of Design, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Kristian Gade Kjelmann, PhD Fellow, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Aalborg University


Since climate change is a multi-dimensional phenomena, policy, and regulatory aspects of the new nexus between digitalisation, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and adaptation span across multiples sectors and levels of governance. As such, it stands that a major challenge is to bring together different scales of governance and shareholders to ensure coordination and cooperation in regulating this new nexus. Therefore, this article outlines and discusses the academic literature on DRR and asks how can this nexus be conceptualised from a regulatory perspective and what opportunities and challenges does this new outlook present for climate resilience? As this article demonstrates, despite this emerging nexus between the fields of law, policy, and technology within DRRthey continue to largely work in isolation. However, the development of a methodological framework, integrating law, policy, and technology within a DRR framework provides useful insights in identifying the relevant factors that should be considered when discussing DRR within the context of Climate Change Adaptative-Mitigation

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Volume 2024 No. 3

ISSN 2328-8264





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